Museum of Hope




The Museum of Hope was envisioned to promote the concept that hemodialysis is an interim step in a progressive evolutionary research process. It purpose was to restore outdated dialysis equipment as a testimonial to the patients who were first asked to participate in our National Kidney Program, and to encourage our current patient population awaiting the next viable treatment method in the cure for kidney failure. Additionally the museum project would activate a mobile acute research system in participation with peer review activities as a link between Medical Research Centers, Universities, and Industry. The objectives were a living, working museum that would display the restored pieces at regional and national conferences.


Modified Skeggs-Leonard Parallel Plate Dialyzer (1950's) :The modified Skeggs-Leonard Parallel Plate Dialyzer was useful in developing the appropriate compartment shaping and membrane technology necessary to further molecular clearance models. The primary goal was to increase surface area while reducing blood priming volumes. This plate dialyzer research evolved to further developments, including contributions by Dr. Fredrik Kiil. The plate dialyzer format was helpful in supporting twin-coil reuse methodology. Reuse promoted an approach to improve membrane biocombatabilty as well as offer a means to reduce the cost of dialysis.

100 Liter Pump Tank (1956-1959) :The 100 Liter Pump Tank was manufactured by Baxter Travenol Between 1956 and 1959. During those three years 123 units were shipped. Many, however, remained uncrated for the lack of trained personnel. The 100 Liter Tank utilized a coil dialysis filter system. The volume of the earlier coils required that they be primed or filled with blood, therefore the patient would receive a blood transfusion with the start of each treatment. The bath or dialysis solution was 100 liters. The patient would be treated for 6 hours; his blood returned the system disassembled, cleaned and set up to administer the second 6 hours of the required 12 hour treatment.

Travenol RSP (Introduced 1967) :The Travenol RSP became the industry's work horse. Introducing improved aspects of dialysis, as well as mobility. The RSP carried a bath of 120 leters, and at its inception was designed for coil dialyzers. Later modifications of the RSP allowed for negative pressure applications, so that hollow fiber technology could be utilized.

SORB Systems (1968-1971) : The museum exhibits one of only three prototype sorbent delivery systems manufactured and developed by Organon-Tecknica. The display includes a reuseable cartridge case that was used experimentally. These first three experimental units progressed the development of what later was marketed as the URS, the URSB, the URSD, the SSD, and the REDY 2000. 17 URSD machines were donated and sent to Armenia from Los Angeles California in December of 1988; this effort in order to help in the care of acutely ill patients who needed dialysis due to "CRUSH" syndrome injuries sustained from the earthquake in Spitak Armenia.

Redy Sorb System (1970's) :The Sorb Cartridge System helped promote the evolution of mobile acute dialysis teams and re-enforced much of the research in developing specific baths tailored to meet the needs of the individual acutely ill patient. Its greatest advantage on a short term basis was to achieve 4 hours of dialysis with only 6 leters of bath, instead of the normally required 120 leters. This was achieveable because of sorbent cartridge technology. It also gave the care giver a precise measure of fluid removal because of its closed and minaturized dialysis batch system.

MA-D Air Foam Detector 1975 : During the late 1960ís in Los Angeles California, a home dialysis patient and his son (an inventor) developed a reliable way to detect air, or air foam, in the extra corporeal hemodialysis blood circuit. The air foam detectors prior to this breakthrough were in fact each patient and his caregiver, who would visually try to see air in the extra corporeal lines during 8 hours of treatment time. Air in the bloodlines, especially micro-air emboli, is an immediate life-threatening event. The patient on dialysis requires the blood pump speed set to propel his/her blood at a minimum of 10 ounces per minute; air making its way to the patientís circulatory system would cause the patientís circulatory system to collapse with air trapped in the left ventricle of the heart. Nevertheless, this home dialysis patientís son, an inventor, and his father worked to develop an air detection device that worked far better than any others who attempted at solving the problem. What first became marketed as the MA-D air foam detector, was capable of detecting micro-air emboli, it would alarm audibly, stop the blood pump, and clamp the venous line.

Milton-Roy BR 110 (1975) : The BR 110 was a single patient delivery system and it utilized hot water sterilization for disinfection after patient use.





DIALYZERS :Dialyzer designs were experimented with to progressively realize three different formats. The museum exhibits coil, plate, and hollow fiber techonology as it was developed.

Drake-Willock Delivery System :During the 1960s, Dr. Richard Drake developed the Drake Willock dialysis machine, which rapidly became the best selling dialysis system in the world. Drake's Portland-based company, DWS, Inc., employed 250 employees before it was sold in the 1970s. The Drake-Willock develery system contributed to proportioning pump technology which later on would help introduce a double pump system that would accomodate the use of bicarbonate rather than acetate as a buffer for dialysate. The use of bicarbonate delivery systems greatly improved patient stability.

Automated Peritoneal Delivery System(1978) :Peritoneal Dialysis is the process by which sterile dialyzing solution is introduced into the abdominal cavity. The peritoneal membrane in the abdomen functions similarily as an artificial membrane would in a hemodialysis machine. The first automated systems for this treatment form began to be marketed in 1978.

Single Needle Device (1986) :Single needle devices were short term because of the manner they created turbulence in blood flow with the potential of higher blood flows reduced. The development of dual lumen and co-axial venous cathers repaidly made the single needle device obsolete.

"Days of Future Past" a recollection